Caspian Sea Agreement 2018
The delicate issue of the distribution of the hydrocarbon-rich subsoil has been turbulent. Kairat Abdrakhmanov, the Kazakh Foreign Minister, told reporters: “The methodology for defining the basic lines of the state is defined in a separate agreement between all parties in accordance with this convention on the legal status of the Caspian Sea. This is a key phrase that is particularly important for our Iranian partners. Under the terms of the agreement, Iran is the weakest at sea and could ultimately be a potential loser in the agreement. That would explain why Iranian President Hassan Rouhani on Sunday called the agreement an “important document,” but stressed that he did not resolve all differences around the sea. If it is considered a “sea,” the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (CNNU) would apply. Each coastal state would have a coastal sea of up to 12 nautical miles, an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) and a continental shelf. The EEZ limits would be set on the basis of a middle line. If it were considered a “lake,” customary international law would apply to border lakes, with legal arrangements between neighbouring states that regulate water use. According to experts, the agreement allows Russia to strengthen relations with the Caspian Sea states and prevent the United States from establishing a military presence in the region. 2. In its fishing area, each party has the exclusive right to harvest aquatic biological resources in accordance with the provisions of this agreement, separate agreements concluded by the contracting parties on the basis of the convention and its national legislation.
The United States has agreements with Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan to ship military cargoes from Baku to ports in Aktau and Quryq in Kazakhstan. From there, the shipment is transported by rail to Afghanistan, where the United States has been engaged militarily since 2001. 11. Bilateral and multilateral marine scientific research is conducted by mutual agreement between the parties concerned. Only after ratification by the five coastal states. As expected, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan were the first to ratify the agreement between December 2018 and February 2019. Ratification is underway in Russia. The five countries bordering the Caspian Sea recently reached an agreement to settle their long-standing dispute over its property. Experts say the agreement makes Russia a “de facto naval power” in the region.
The presidents of the five coastal countries – Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan – agreed in August on the legal status of the sea after 22 years of negotiations. U.S. sanctions against Iran have somewhat devalued the importance of the agreement, particularly with regard to the implementation of economic projects in the region. However, the agreement can become the basis of a regional security system and provide the international legal basis for the creation of a good neighbourhood. This greatly reduces the risk of regional conflicts. That is why there were many – and fierce – differences of opinion on how to share some of its huge oil and gas fields.